Monday, May 10, 2010

Famous Quotes from Tirukkural

• Smile, with patience, hopeful heart, in troublous hour and vanquish grief; nothing hath equal power. (Kural No.: 621)
• The stalks of water-flowers are proportionate to the depth of water; so is men's greatness proportionate to their minds (Knowledge). (Kural No.: 595)
• Defer not virtue to another day; receive her now; and at the dying hour she will be your undying friend. (Kural No.: 36)
• Avoid an act which you may repent later; If done by mistake, better not to repeat it. (Kural No.: 655)
• As one goes to the bad ways of life,even because of poverty, even his mother will look him as a stranger. (Kural No.: 1047)
• Friendship is not just a smile on the face; It is what is felt deep within a smiling heart. (Kural No.: 786)
• True friends guard you from evil, make you walk in right path and share your sorrow in difficult times. (Kural No.: 787)
• Excessive or deficient food or activity causes disorders in mobility, breathing and digestion. (Kural No.: 941)
• Though the world goes round with many activities, it is dependent on agriculture. Hence, though laborious, farming is the foremost activity. (Kural No.: 1031)
• Agriculturists are the linchpin of the mankind since they support all others who cannot till the soil. (Kural No.: 1032)
• The learned teacher makes you enjoy learning; On leaving, makes you to keep thinking of his teaching. (Kural No.: 394)
• Think and then undertake the work; to think after commencement will bring disgrace. (Kural No.: 467)
• Determined efforts result in prosperity; Idleness will bring nothing. (Kural No.: 616)
• Water will flow from a well in the sand in proportion to the depth to which it is dug, and knowledge will flow from a man in proportion to his learning. (Kural No.: 396)
• As water changes (its nature), from the nature of the soil (in which it flows), so will the character of men resemble that of their associates. (Kural No.: 452)
• If wealth be in the possession of a man who has the great excellence (of benevolence), it is like a tree which as a medicine is an infallible cure for disease. (Kural No.: 217)
• Let (one) weigh well the strength of the deed (he purposes to do), his own strength, the strength of his enemy, and the strength of the allies (of both), and then let him act. (Kural No.: 471)
• The axle tree of a bandy, loaded only with peacocks' feathers will break, if it be greatly overloaded. (Kural No.: 475)
• Let the thoughts be always great and progressive. It will not be a loss, even if the success eludes. (Kural No.: 596)
• There is no need of a shaven head, nor of tangled long hair, if a man abstain from those deeds which the wise have condemned. (Kural No.: 280)
• A fool can procure in a single birth a hell into which he may enter and suffer through all the seven births. (Kural No.: 835)
• All human beings agree as regards their birth but differ as regards their characteristics, because of the different qualities of their actions. (Kural No.: 972)

Tirukkural - Proud to Tamil and Tamilan

Thirukkural  திருக்குறள்  is a classic of couplets or Kurals (1330 rhyming Tamil couplets) or aphorisms celebrated by Tamils.It was authored by Thiruvalluvar, and is considered to be the first work to focus on ethics, in Dravidian Literature. Although the exact period of its composition is still disputed, scholars agree that it was produced before the 4th century A.D. The work begins with a salutation to the Almighty. The author was hence certainly a believer in God . His work is however, completely universal in approach. It is hence called ulga podhu marai (the world's common scripture). It does not advocate any specific religion then prevalent in India, namelyHinduism, Jainism and Buddhism Thirukkural expounds various aspects of life and is one of the most important works in Tamil. This is reflected in some of the other names by which the text is known: Tamil marai (Tamil Veda); poyyamozhi (words that never fail); and teyva nul or dheiva nool (divine text). The book is considered to be a posterior to Arthashastra by some historians and to precede Manimekalai and Silapathikaram since both the latter acknowledge the Kural text.Thirukkural is and remains to be the book that has been translated into the most number of languages and hence it is called as "Ulaga Podhu Marai" meaning the Common Knowledge for the world. Copies of Thirukkural are available even at places as far as New York. Copies of Thirukkural published as early as 1930 can be found in New York Public Library.
Thirukkural  is a collection of 1330 Tamil couplets organised into 133 chapters. Each chapter has a specific subject ranging from "ploughing a piece of land" to "ruling a country". According to the LIFCO Tamil-Tamil-English dictionary, the Tamil word Kural means Venpa verse with two lines. Thirukkural comes under one of the four categories of Venpas (Tamil verses) called Kural Venpa. The 1330 couplets are arranged into 3 main sections and 133 chapters. Each chapter contains 10 couplets. A couplet consists of seven cirs, with four cirs on the first line and three on the second. A cir is a single or a combination of more than one Tamil word. For example, Thirukkural is a cir formed by combining the two words Thiru and Kural, i.e. Thiru + Kural = Thirukkural. It is has been translated to various other languages.
There are claims and counter claims as to the authorship of the book and to the exact number of couplets written by Thiruvalluvar. The first instance of the author's name mentioned as Thiruvalluvar is found to be several centuries later in a song of praise called Garland of Thiruvalluvarin Thiruvalluva Malai.


The Thirukkural is divided into three sections. They are (in this order):
  • அறத்துப்பால் - Arattuppaal: On law/virtue 
  • பொருட்பால் - Porutpaal: On wealth/politics 
  • காமத்துப்பால் - Kamatuppaal: On desire/love 
The Latin translation of Thirukkural made by Constanzo Beschi in 1730 did much to make known to European intellectuals the richness and beauty of Oriental Tamil literature. Being a collection of poem, the translation to prose or the Urai (explanation) of Tirukural have been given by eminent personalities like M.K.Karunanidhi, the current Chief minister of Tamilnadu. One of the earliest commentaries on the Thirukkural was by Parimelazhagar, belonging to the 12th century. His commentary (Urai) give us an idea of the amount of information contained in each and every kural. A lot of software are available these days for installing Kurals in desktops. The software based Kural (poem) changes each day and you get the kural and its explanation in both English and Tamil. An English Translation of Tirukural by GU Pope brought the Tirukkural to the western world in 1886. This work is widely revered and accepted in many parts of the world. Pope's translation can be viewed from the website
The following is a list of translations/commentaries of the Tamil literary classic THIRUKURAL - taken out from the Encyclopaedia of Tamil Literature, vol. 1, Inst. of Asian Studies, Thiruvanmayur, Tamilnadu, India.
  • Nalini Mohan, Sanyal, thirukural, Calcutta, 1939
  • Sastri, E.C., thirukural, Calcutta, 1974
  • Nalini Mohan, Sanyal, thirukural, Calcutta, 1939
  • Sastri, E.C., thirukural, Calcutta, 1974
  • Krishnamoorthy, S. Calcutta, 2001
  • Myo Thant, U, thirukkural, Rangoon
  • Chi Eng Hsi, thirukkural, Hongkong, 1967
  • Zvelebil, Kamil V, Thirukural (selections), Prague, 1952–1954
  • Kat, D, Thirukural (selections), Netherlands, 1964
  • Aiyar, V.V.S, Kural_: Maxims of thiruvalluvar, 4th ed, Madras, 1961
  • Balasubramanian, K.M, Thirukural of thiruvalluvar, Madras, 1962
  • Chakravarthi, A, thirukural in English with commentary, Madras, 1953
  • Drew, H.W., The kural of thiruvalluvar with commentary of Parimelazhakar, Madras, 1840
  • Drew, H.W. and Lazarus, J., Thirukural (in verses), Reprint, Madras, 1956
  • Ellis, F.W., thirukural on virtue (in verse) with commentary, 1812, reprint Madras 1955
  • Gajapathy Nayagar, A, The rosary of gems of thirukkural, Madras, 1969
  • Kasturi Srinivasan, Thirukural: an ancient Tamil classic (in couplets), Bombay, 1969
  • Mathavaiyah, A, Kural in English with commentary in Tamil, Madras, 1925
  • Michael, S.M., The sacred aphorisms of thiruvalluvar (in verse), Nagarcoil, 1928
  • Muthuswamy, P, Thirukural in English, Madurai, 1965
  • Parameswaran Aiyar, T.V., 108 gems from the sacred Kural, Kottayam, 1928
  • Parameswaran Pillai, V.K., kural, Madras
  • Pope, G.U, A collection of the English translation of thirukural, Madras, 1959
  • Popely, H.A., The sacred Kural (selections in verses), Calcutta, 1951
  • Raja, P, thirukural (in verses), Kumbakonam, 1950
  • Rajagopalachari, C, kural, the great book of thiruvalluvar, Madras, 1937, 3rd ed, 1973
  • Ramachandra Dikshithar, V.R., thirukural in English with roman translation, Madras, 1949
  • Ranganatha Muthaliar, A: thirukural moolamum uraiyum with English translation, Madras, 1933
  • Thangaswami, T.D, thirukural (selections in verse), Madras, 1954
  • Thirunavukarasu, Mrs, T., Kural a selection of 366 verses (a gem for each day), Poona, 1916
  • Vadivel chettiar, K, kural in English with Tamil text and parimelazhakar commentary,(3parts), Madurai, 1972–1980
  • Vanmikinathan, G, the thirukural - a unique guide to moral, material and spiritual prosperity, trichy, 1969
  • Yogi Suddanantha Bharathi: Thirukural with English couplets, Madrs, 1968
  • Yogi Suddanantha Bharathi, thirukural couplets with clear prose rendering, Madras, 1970
  • Berwick, S.L, Na. Thirukkurala, Fiji, 1964
  • Aalto, Pentit, Kural - the ancient Tamil classic, Finland, 1972
  • Ariel, M, kural de thiruvalluvar (traduits du tamoul), Paris, 1848
  • Barrigue de, Fontaineu, G, le livre de l'amour de thiruvalluva, Paris, 1889
  • Danielou, Alain, thiruvallouvar kural, Pondicherry, 1942
  • Jacolliot, Louis, kural de thiruvalluvar, selections, Paris, 1767
  • Lamairesse, M, thirukural in french, Pondicherry, 1867
  • Albrecht, Fenz and K. Lalithambal: thirukural von thiruvalluvar aus dem Tamil, Madurai, 1977
  • Cammera, A.F, thirukural waith German translation, Leipzig, 1803
  • Graul, Karl, der kural des thiruvalluvar, London, 1854
  • Graul, Karl, der tamu lische gnomes dichtar thiruvalluvar, Leipzig, 1865
  • Rickert, Friederich, thirukural, selections, Berlin, 1847
  • William and Norgate, Der kural des thiruvalluvar, 2nd ed, London, 1866
  • Kalani, Kantilal L., thirukural in Gujarati, Bombay, 1971 (Gujarti - Philosopher - Writer in Gujarati Literature - [1930-1998]. Kantilal has won many prices for his books and has written more than 60 books. One of his Co-profound translation is “VISHNU SAHSTRNAM”.
  • Sankar Raju Naidu, S, thirukural in Hindi, Madras, 1958
  • Seshadri, K, thirukural in Hindi, Lucknow, 1982
  • Govindaraj Jain, Kural in verse, first two parts, New delhi, 1942
  • Jain, B.D, thirukural, thirupananthal, 1961
  • Khenand Rakar, thirukural, parts 1 and 2, Ajmer, 1924
  • Rajan Pillai, thirukural, Lucknow, 1976
  • Venkatakrishnan, M.G, thirukural, Trichy, 1964
  • Gundappa, L, thirukural (3 parts), Madras, 1960
  • Gundappa, L, thirukural dharma bhaga, Bangalore, 1955
  • Srinivas, P.S, thirukural with original couplets and translations in Kannada, Madurai, 1982
  • Srikanthaiah, B.M, Kural (selections in verses), bangalore, 1940
  • Graul, Charles, Kural of thiruvalluvar, Tranquebar, 1866
  • Veeramamunivar, thirukural (Books I and II), London, 1930
  • Dr.G.Soosai Ph.D,J.P.,P.P.N,P.K.T.,Thirukkural Kitab Murni TamilNadu.,Kuala Lumpur,1978 & 1991
  • Ismail, Hussein: thirukural sastera kalasik Tamil yang, Kuala Lumpur, 1967
  • Ramily Bin Thakir thirukural (in verses), Kuala Lumpur, 1964
  • Azhakathu Kurup, thirukural in verses, Trivandrum, 1875
  • Balakrishna Nair, G, Kural waith commentary, Part I, Trivandrum, 1963
  • Chellan Nadar, K, thirukural tharmanaskantam, Parassala, 1962
  • Damodaran Pillai,P, thirukural manikal, Trivandrum, 1951
  • Gopalakurup, Vennikulam, thirukural (first 2 parts in verse), Kottayam, 1960
  • Govinda Pillai, A, thirukural, Trivandrum
  • Thirukkural Malayalam Vivarthanam Published by DC Books Kottayam Written By S. Ramesan Nair
  • Kishrod, Dash Ch, thirukuralu-in oriya language, Sampalbur, 1985
  • Ram Murti Sharma, thirukural dhamma granth of the tamils, Chandigarh, 1983
  • Umadevi, Wandy Dynowskiev, thiruvalluvar kural, Madras, 1958
  • Kamala Gurg, thirukural needhi sastra, Jaipur, 1982
  • Glazov, J.J and Krishnamurthi, A, thirukural, a book on virtu, politics and love, Moscow, 1963
  • Ibragimov, A., Thirukural in couplets with illustrations, Moscow, 1974
  • Srirama Desikan, S.N, thirukural in Sanskrit slokas, Madras, 1961, 1968
  • Ram, S.S, Saurastra thirukural payiram - pitika pragaranam, Madurai, 1980
  • De Silva, Charles, Sirigiya (thirukural in sinhalese), Colombo, 1964
  • Sissigamy Govokgada, M, thirukural, Colombo, 1961
  • Frykholm Ingya, thirukural, Uddavalla, 1971
  • Jagannatha Sastri, Mudiganthi, thiruvalluva sookthalu, West Godavari, 1952
  • Lakshminarayana Sastri, Kural, chittoor, 1906
  • Kohan, Muhamad Yusuf, Kural in Urdu and Arabic, Madras, 1976
  • Surawathi Hasarat, Kural in Urdu, New Delhi, 1966
It is the book that most no of translations made after BIBLE. Be proud of Tamil

TAMIL THAI VALTHU- starting of official programs in tamilnadu

நீராரும் கடல் உடுத்த நில மடந்தைக் கெழிலொழுகும்
சீராரும் வதனமெனத் திகழ்பரதக் கண்டமிதில்
தெக்கணமும் அதிற்சிறந்த திராவிட நல் திருநாடும்
தக்கசிறு பிறைநுதலும் தரித்தநறும் திலகமுமே!
அத்திலக வாசனைபோல் அனைத்துலகும் இன்பமுற,
எத்திசையும் புகழ்மணக்க இருந்த பெரும் தமிழணங்கே!
நின் சீரிளமைத் திறம்வியந்து
செயல் மறந்து வாழ்த்துதுமே!

and its english 


Nīrānum kaṭal uṭutta nila maṭantaik kelilolakum
Cīrānum vata
namenat tikalparatak kaṇṭamitil
Tekkaṇamum ati
rciranta tirāviṭa nil tinunāṭum
ra pirainutalum tarittanarum tilakamumē!
Attilaka vāca
naipōl anaittulakum inpamura,
Etticaiyum puka
lmaṇakka inunta penum tamiṇaṅkē!
n ciriḷamait tiramviyuntu!
Ceyal ma
rantu vāltutumē!

TAMIL- interesting facts about my language

Tamil is the first legally recognized Classical Language of India, as formally announced by the then President of India, Dr. Abdul Kalam, in a joint sitting of both houses of Parliament in 2004. The name ‘Tamil’ is an Anglicized version of the native name, the final letter usually transcribed as the lower ‘l’ or ‘zh’.
A few scholars have linked the origins of Tamil to that of Sanskrit; however, unlike most of the other established literary languages of India, the origins of Tamil are independent of Sanskrit. Tamil has the longest unbroken literary tradition amongst the 4 major Dravidian languages (Tamil, Telugu, Kannada and Malayalam).
Tamil tradition dates the oldest works to several millennia ago; the earliest examples of Tamil writing we have today are in inscriptions from the 3rd century BC, which are written in an adapted form of the Brahmi script (Mahadevan, 2003). Archaeological evidence obtained from inscriptions excavated in 2005 dates the language to around 1000 BC.
Tamil has had its share of borrowing words from other languages, notably that of Sanskrit words during the medieval period. This was, however, removed by many 20th century purists, notably Parithimaar Kalaignar and Maraimalai Adigal. This movement was called ‘thanith thamizh iyakkam’ (meaning, pure Tamil movement). Tamil, thus, in formal documents, public speeches and scientific discourses is largely free of Sanskrit loan words.
While other pre-Aryan languages were happily courting Sanskrit and Prakrit (600 BC-600AD), Old Tamil stood firm in its corner refusing to yield.
Where Tamil is spoken:
Tamil is the official language of the state of ‘Tamil Nadu’ in India. It is also widely spoken in other southern Indian states, the Union Territory of Pudhucherry, North east Sri Lanka and Malaysia.
Dialects of the Language and where they are Spoken:
Twently-two current dialects of ‘Tamil’ are listed in ‘The Ethnologue’ which include Adi Dravida, Aiyar, Aiyangar, Arava, Burgandi, Kasuva, Kongar, Korava, Korchi, Madrasi, Parikala, Pattapu Bhasha, Sri Lanka Tamil, Malaya Tamil, Burma Tamil, South Africa Tamil, Tigalu, Harijan, Sankethi, Hebbar, Tirunelveli and Madurai. Other known dialects are Kongu and Kumari. Although not a dialect, the Tamil spoken in Chennai (capital of Tamil Nadu) infuses English words and is called ‘Madras Bashai’.
One of the most notable literary and ethical treatises in the Indian languages, Thirukkural, is written by Thiruvalluvar. There is a general consensus among the historians and literary authorities that Thirukkural was written around 2000 years ago.
Dr. Albert Schweitzer, Nobel Laureate, notes that, “There hardly exists in the literature of the world a collection of maxims in which we find such lofty wisdom as in Thirukkural”
Dr. G. U. Pope, a Christian Missionary and Translator of Thirukkural in English writes, “The Kural is an integral painting of a civilization which is harmonious in itself and which possesses a clearly recognizable unity."
India’s father of the nation, Mahatma Gandhi, notes, “I wanted to learn Tamil, only to enable me to study Valluvar’s Thirukkural through his mother tongue itself…. It is a treasure of wisdom…”
Interesting Facts about the Language:
Classical Hebrew terms like tuki and ahalat are close to the Tamil words tokai and akil respectively. Although English words like 'sandalwood' and 'rice' are borrowed from the Greek language, their origin, some claim, is in fact Tamil.
Even the minutest of fractions have a place in ‘Tamil’ language. Some interesting examples include the term immi referred to the fraction of 1/320 x 1/7, one-seventh of this fraction termed as anu, one-eleventh of an anu as mummi and one ninth of amummi as kuNam.
Tamil’s Love for the Language:
The Tamil speaking people in the state of ‘Tamil Nadu’ in India are very passionate about their language, and feel that if Hindi, the national language of India, enters their land, their classical language and ancient culture/tradition would be no more, citing cities like Mumbai, Kolkata, Hyderabad where the native language is rendered nearly auxiliary.
In an address in 1962, former Tamil Nadu Chief Minister, C N Annadurai, made the following statements opposing imposition of Hindi: "It is claimed that Hindi should be common language (in India) because it is spoken by the majority. Why should we then claim the tiger as our national animal instead of the rat which is so much more numerous? Or the peacock as our national bird when the crow is ubiquitous?”
Annadurai kept up the rhetoric in Parliament, saying, "Since every school in India teaches English, why can't it be our link language? Why do Tamils have to study English for communication with the world and Hindi for communication within India? Do we need a big door for the big dog and a small door for the small dog? I say, let the small dog use the big door too!"
The language issue still evokes strong passions among Tamils and the words of Annadurai are fondly remembered.
On Why Tamil is a Classical Language:
University of California, Berkeley, holds a ‘Tamil’ Conference annually. Its Chair in Tamil Studies, Prof. George L. Hart, writes, “To qualify as a classical tradition, a language must fit several criteria: it should be ancient, it should be an independent tradition that arose mostly on its own and not as an offshoot of another tradition, and it must have a large and extremely rich body of ancient literature. Unlike the other modern languages of India, Tamil meets each of these requirements. It is extremely old (as old as Latin and older than Arabic); it arose as an entirely independent tradition, with almost no influence from Sanskrit or other languages; and its ancient literature is indescribably vast and rich.”