Monday, May 17, 2010


Without 8
12345679 x 9 = 111111111
12345679 x 18 = 222222222
12345679 x 27 = 333333333
12345679 x 36 = 444444444
12345679 x 45 = 555555555
12345679 x 54 = 666666666
12345679 x 63 = 777777777
12345679 x 72 = 888888888
12345679 x 81 = 999999999

Sequential Inputs of 6
6 x 7 = 42
66 x 67 = 4422
666 x 667 = 444222
6666 x 6667 = 44442222
66666 x 66667 = 4444422222
666666 x 666667 = 444444222222
6666666 x 6666667 = 44444442222222
66666666 x 66666667 = 4444444422222222
666666666 x 666666667 = 444444444222222222

Numeric Palindrome with 1's
1 x 1 = 1
11 x 11 = 121
111 x 111 = 12321
1111 x 1111 = 1234321
11111 x 11111 = 123454321
111111 x 111111 = 12345654321
1111111 x 1111111 = 1234567654321
11111111 x 11111111 = 123456787654321
111111111 x 111111111 = 12345678987654321

Without 8
12345679 x 9 = 111111111
12345679 x 18 = 222222222
12345679 x 27 = 333333333
12345679 x 36 = 444444444
12345679 x 45 = 555555555
12345679 x 54 = 666666666
12345679 x 63 = 777777777
12345679 x 72 = 888888888
12345679 x 81 = 999999999

Sequential Inputs of 9
9 x 9 = 81
99 x 99 = 9801
999 x 999 = 998001
9999 x 9999 = 99980001
99999 x 99999 = 9999800001
999999 x 999999 = 999998000001
9999999 x 9999999 = 99999980000001
99999999 x 99999999 = 9999999800000001
999999999 x 999999999 = 999999998000000001


61 Interesting Facts About . . . . . .
  1. India is about 1/3 the size of the United States, yet it is the second most populous country in the world, with a population of 1,166,079,217. India is the seventh largest country in the world, at 1.27 million square miles.g
  2. India is the largest democracy in the world.i
  3. The Kumbh Mela (or Grand Pitcher Festival) is a huge Hindu religious festival that takes place in India every 12 years. In 2001, 60 million people attended, breaking the record for the world’s biggest gathering. The mass of people was photographed from space by a satellite.c
  4. Many Indians find toilet paper repellent and consider it cleaner to splash water with the left hand in the appropriate direction. Consequently, the left hand is considered unclean and is never used for eating.f
  5. To avoid polluting the elements (fire, earth, water, air), followers of Zoroastrianism in India don’t bury their dead, but instead leave bodies in buildings called “Towers of Silence” for the vultures to pick clean. After the bones dry, they are swept into a central well.f
  6. rupee
    It is illegal for foreigners to import or export Indian currency (rupees)
  7. It is illegal to take Indian currency (rupees) out of India.f
  8. India leads the world with the most murders (32,719), with Russia taking second at 28,904 murders per year.j
  9. India has one of the world’s highest rates ofabortion.e
  10. More than a million Indians are millionaires, yet most Indians live on less than two dollars a day. An estimated 35% of India’s population lives below the poverty line.l
  11. Cows can be found freely wandering the streets of India’s cities. They are considered sacred and will often wear a tilak, a Hindu symbol of good fortune. Cows are considered one of humankind’s seven mothers because she offers milk as does one’s natural mother.k
  12. Dancing is one of India’s most highly developed arts and was an integral part of worship in the inner shrines of every temple. It is notable for its expressive hand movements.f
  13. Rabies is endemic in India. Additionally, “Delhi Belly” or diarrhea is commonplace due to contaminated drinking water.f
  14. Many Indian wives will never say her husband’s name aloud, as it is a sign of disrespect. When addressing him, the wife will use several indirect references, such as “ji” or “look here” or “hello,” or even refer to him as the father of her child.f
  15. A widow is considered bad luck—otherwise, her husband wouldn’t have died. Elderly women in the village might call a widow “the one who ate her husband.” In some orthodox families, widows are not allowed near newlyweds or welcomed at social gatherings.b
  16. India is the birthplace of chess.l The original word for “chess” is the Sanskritchaturanga, meaning “four members of an army”—which were mostly likely elephants, horses, chariots, and foot soldiers.d
  17. The Indian flag has three horizontal bands of color: saffron for courage and sacrifice, white for truth and peace, and green for faith, fertility, and chivalry. An emblem of a wheel spinning used to be in the center of the white band, but when India gained independence, a Buddhist dharma chakra, or wheel of life, replaced the spinning wheel.m
  18. Khajuraho erotic sculptures
    Khajuraho’s exotic art may suggest that sex was a step for attaining ultimate liberation or moksha
  19. The temples of Khajuraho are famous for their erotic sculptures and are one of the most popular tourist attractions in India. Scholars still debate the purpose of such explicit portrayals of sexual intercourse, which sometimes involves animals.a
  20. The earliest cotton in the world was spun and woven in India. Roman emperors would wear delicate cotton from India that they would call “woven winds.” Mogul emperors called the fabrics “morning dew” and “cloth of running water.”i
  21. In ancient and medieval India, suttees, in which a recently widowed woman would immolate herself on her husband’s funeral pyre, were common.b
  22. The Himalayas—from the Sanskrit hima, meaning “snow,” and alaya, meaning “abode”—are found in the north of India. They extend 1,500 miles and are slowly growing taller, by almost an inch (2.5 cm) a year. Several ancient Indian monasteries are found nestled in the grandeur of these mountains.m
  23. India is the world’s largest producer of dried beans, such as kidney beans and chickpeas. It also leads the world in banana exports; Brazil is second.l
  24. In India, the fold and color of clothing are viewed as important markers of social classification. Additionally, women will be viewed as either a prostitute or a holy person depending on the manner in which she parts her hair.k
  25. With 150,000 post offices, India has the largest postal network in the world. However, it is not unusual for a letter to take two weeks to travel just 30 miles.f
  26. In India, grasping one’s ears signifies repentance or sincerity.f
  27. The Bengal tiger is India’s national animal. It was once ubiquitous throughout the country, but now there are fewer than 4,000 wild tigers left.m
  28. Indians hold prominent places both internationally and in the United States. For example, the co-founder of Sun Microsystems (Vinod Khosla), the creator of the Pentium chip (Vinod Dahm), the founder/creator of Hotmail (Sabeer Bhatia), and the GM of Hewlett-Packard (Rajiv Gupta) are all Indian.h
  29. Alexander the Great of Macedon (356-323 B.C.) was one of the first important figures to bring India into contact with the West. After his death, a link between Europe and the East would not be restored until Portuguese explorer Vasco da Gama (1460-1524) landed in Calicut, India, in 1498.l
  30. The British Raj, or British rule, lasted from 1858 to 1947 (although they had a strong presence in India since the 1700s). British influence is still seen in Indian architecture, education system, transportation, and politics. Many of India’s worst famines are associated with British rule in India.i
  31. Every major world religion is represented in India. Additionally, Hinduism, Buddhism, Jainism, and Sikhism all originated in India.f
  32. About 80% of Indians are Hindu. Muslims are the largest minority in India and form approximately 13% of the country’s population. In fact, India has the third largest population of Muslims in the world, after Indonesia and Pakistan.i
  33. India has the world’s largest movie industry, based in the city of Mumbai (known as the “City of Dreams”). The B in “Bollywood” comes from Bombay, the former name for Mumbai. Almost all Bollywood movies are musicals.l
  34. Mumbai (Bombay) is India’s largest city, with a population of 15 million. In 1661, British engineers built a causeway uniting all seven original islands of Bombay into a single landmass.l
  35. Mohandas K. Gandhi (1869-1948) is known around the world as Mahatma, which is an honorific title meaning “Great Soul” in the ancient Indian language of Sanskrit. He devoted his life to free India from British rule peacefully and based his campaign on civil disobedience. His birthday, October 2, is a national holiday. He was assassinated in 1948.m
  36. Lotus Temple
    The Lotus temple is one of the most visited temples in the world, with over 50 million visitors per year
  37. The lotus is sacred to both Hindus and Buddhists. The Bahá'í house of worship in Delhi, known as the “Lotus Temple,” is shaped like a lotus flower with 27 gigantic “petals” that are covered in marble.i
  38. The banyan, or Indian fig tree, is considered a symbol of immortality and is mentioned in many Indian myths and legends. This self-renewing plant is India’s national tree.m
  39. Marigold flowers are used as decoration for Hindu marriages and are a symbol of good fortune and happiness.i
  40. The official name of India is the Republic of India. The name “India” derives from the River Indus, which most likely is derived from the Sanskrit sindhu, meaning “river.” The official Sanskrit name of India is Bharat, after the legendary king in the epic Mahabharata.m
  41. Introduced by the British, cricket is India’s most popular sport. Hockey is considered the national sport, and the Indian field hockey team proudly won Olympic gold in 1928.i
  42. Indians made significant contributions to calculus, trigonometry, and algebra. The decimal system was invented in India in 100 B.C. The concept of zero as a number is also attributed to India.m
  43. The national fruit of India is the mango. The national bird is the peacock, which was initially bred for food.m
  44. Most historians agree that the first recorded account of plastic surgery is found in ancient Indian Sanskrit texts.b
  45. Hindi and English are the official languages of India. The government also recognizes 17 other languages (Assamese, Bengali, Gujarati, Nepali, Manipuri, Konkani, Kannada, Kashmiri, Malayalam, Marathi, Oriya, Punjabi, Sanskrit, Sindhi, Tamil, Telugu, and Urdu). Apart from these languages, about 1,652 dialects are spoken in the country.l
  46. India’s pastoral communities are largely dependent on dairy and have made India the largest milk-producing country in the world.l
  47. India has the world’s third largest road network at 1.9 million miles. It also has the world’s second largest rail network, which is the world’s largest civilian employer with 16 million workers.f
  48. Ganges
    Though the Ganges is one of the dirtiest rivers in the world, bathing in the river is thought to wash away one’s sins
  49. Rivers have played a vital role in India’s popular culture and folklore—they have been worshipped as goddesses because they bring water to an otherwise dry land. Bathing in the Ganges in particular is thought to take away a person’s sins. It is not unusual to spread a loved one’s ashes in the Ganges.f
  50. Raziya Sultana (1205-1240) was the first woman leader of India. She was considered a great leader, though she ruled for only three years before being murdered.b
  51. Most Indians rinse their hands, legs, and face before eating a meal. It is considered polite to eat with the right hand, and women eat after everyone is finished. Wasting food is considered a sin.i
  52. During the Vedic era in India, horse sacrifice sanctioned the sovereignty of the king.a
  53. It is traditional to wear white, not black, to a funeral in India. Widows will often wear white in contrast to the colorful clothes of married or single women.k
  54. All of India is under a single time zone.g
  55. On India’s Independence Day, August 15, 1947, the country was split into India and Pakistan. The partition displaced 1.27 million people and resulted in the death of several hundred thousand to a million people.g
  56. In recent years, Indian authors have made a mark on the world with such novels as Salman Rushdie’s The Satanic Verses (1988), Vikram Seth’s Suitable Boy(1993), and Arundhati Roy’s The God of Small Things (1997).i
  57. India experiences six seasons: summer, autumn, winter, spring, summer monsoon, and winter monsoon.m
  58. India is the world’s largest tea producer, and tea (chai) is its most popular beverage.f
  59. Taj Mahal
    According to legend, to prevent the builders from ever replicating the beauty of the Taj Mahal, their hands were cut off
  60. The Taj Mahal (“crown palace”) was built by Mughal Emperor Shah Jahan (1592-1666) for his beloved wife Mumtaz Mahal (1593-1631). This architectural beauty has been called “marbled embroidery” for its intricate workmanship. It took 22,000 workmen 22 years to complete it.m
  61. The first and greatest civilization in ancient India developed around the valley of the Indus River (now Pakistan) around 3000 B.C. Called the Indus Valley civilization, this early empire was larger than any other empire, including Egypt and Mesopotamia.l
  62. After the great Indus Civilization collapsed in 2000 B.C., groups of Indo-Europeans called Aryans (“noble ones”) traveled to northwest India and reigned during what is called the Vedic age. Aryans spoke and imported Sanskrit into India, which is the mother of all European languages. The mingling of ideas from the Aryan and Indus Valley religions formed the basis of Hinduism, and the gods Shiva, Kali, and Brahma all have their roots in Aryan civilization. The Aryans also recorded the Vedas, the first Hindu scriptures, and introduced a caste system based on ethnicity and occupation.l
  63. Alexander the Great invaded India partly because he wanted to solve the mystery of the “ocean,” which he had been told was a huge, continuous sea that flowed in a circle around the land. When he reached the Indian Ocean, he sacrificed some bulls to Poseidon for leading him to his goal.m
  64. Greek sculpture strongly influenced many portrayals of Indian gods and goddess, particularly after the conquest of Alexander the Great around 330B.C. In fact, early Indian gods had Greek features and only later did distinct Indian styles emerge.m
  65. Chandragupta Maurya (340-290 B.C.), a leader in India who established the Mauryan Empire (321-185 B.C.), was guarded by a band of women on horseback.a
  66. When the first independent prime minister of India, pacifist Jawaharlal Nehru (1889-1964), was featured in Vogue, his distinctive close fitting, single-breasted jacket briefly became an important fashion statement for the Mod movement in the West. Named the Nehru jacket, the prime minister’s coat was popularized by the Beatles and worn by such famous people as Johnny Carson (1925-2005) and Sammy Davis Jr. (1925-1990).n
-- Posted July 21, 2009
a Albanese, Marilia. 2001. India: Treasure from an Ancient World. Vercelli, Italy: White Star, s.p.a.
b Basham, A.L. 1967. The Wonder That Was India. London, England: Sidgwick & Jackson.
c Carrington, Damian. “Kumbh Mela.” New Scientist. January 2001. Accessed: June 29, 2009.
d “Chess.” Online Etymology Dictionary. Douglas Harper, Historian. Accessed: June 30, 2008.
e Gentleman, Amelia. “India’s Lost Daughters: Abortion Toll in the Millions.” January 2006. Accessed: June 29, 2009.
f Grihault, Niki.2003. Culture Smart! India. New York, NY: Kuperard.
g “India.” June 2009. Accessed: June 29, 2009.
h “Indians Abroad.” Accessed: June 28, 2009.
i Khullar, Rupindar. 2005. India: Land of Celebration. San Rafael, CA: Mandala Publishing.
j Raman, Sunil. “India Tops List of Murder Numbers.” BBC.News. June 2008. Accessed: June 29, 2009.
k Rosen, Steven J. 2002. The Hidden Glory of India. Los Angeles, CA: The Bhaktivedanta Book Trust.
l Srinivasan, Radhika and Leslie Jermyn. 2002. Cultures of the World: India. New York, NY: Benchmark Books.
m Swan, Erin Pembrey. 2002. India: Enchantment of the World. New York, NY: Scholastic, Inc.
n Tortora, Phyllis and Keith Eubank. 1998. A Survey of Historic Costume. 3rd ed. New York, NY: Fairchild Books and Visuals.

Saturday, May 15, 2010


Space images taken by NASA reveal a mysterious ancient bridge in the Palk Strait between India and Sri Lanka. The recently discovered bridge currently named as Adam´s Bridge is made of chain of shoals, c.18 mi (30 km) long.
The bridge´s unique curvature and composition by age reveals that it is man made. The legends as well as Archeological studies reveal that the first signs of human inhabitants in Sri Lanka date back to the a primitive age, about 1,750,000 years ago and the bridge´s age is also almost equivalent.
This information is a crucial aspect for an insight into the mysterious legend called Ramayana, which was supposed to have taken place in tredha yuga (more than 1,700,000 years ago).
In this epic, there is a mentioning about a bridge, which was built between Rameshwaram (India) and Srilankan coast under the supervision of a dynamic and invincible figure called Rama who is supposed to be the incarnation of the supreme.
This information may not be of much importance to the archeologists who are interested in exploring the origins of man, but it is sure to open the spiritual gates of the people of the world to have come to know an ancient history linked to the Indian mythology.

RAMAYANAM HINDHU EPIC and its various versons

The Ramayana (Devanāgarī, Rāmāyaṇa) is an ancient Sanskrit epic. It is attributed to the Hindu sage Valmiki and forms an important part of the Hindu canon . The Ramayana is one of the two great epics of India, the other being the Mahabharata. It depicts the duties of relationships, portraying ideal characters like the ideal servant, the ideal brother, the ideal wife and the ideal king.
The name Ramayana is a tatpurusha compound of Rāma and ayana ("going, advancing"), translating to "Rama's Journey". The Ramayana consists of 24,000 verses in seven books (kāṇḍas) and 500 cantos (sargas), and tells the story of Rama (an incarnation of the Hindu preserver-god Vishnu), whose wife Sita is abducted by the demon king of Lanka, Ravana. Thematically, the epic explores the tenets of human existence and the concept of dharma.
Verses in the Ramayana are written in a 32-syllable meter called anustubh. The epic was an important influence on later Sanskrit poetry and Indian life and culture, particularly through its establishment of the shloka meter. Like its epic cousin the Mahābhārata, the Ramayana is not just an ordinary story: it contains the teachings of ancient Hindu sages and presents them in narrative allegory with philosophical and the devotional elements interspersed. The characters Rama, Sita, Lakshmana, Bharata, Hanuman and Ravana are all fundamental to the cultural consciousness of India

As in many oral epics, multiple versions of the Ramayana survive. In particular, the Ramayana related in North India differs in important respects from that preserved in South India and the rest of South-East Asia. There is an extensive tradition of oral storytelling based on the Ramayana in Thailand, Cambodia, Malaysia, Laos, Vietnam, Indonesia and Maldives. Father Kamil Bulke, author of Ramakatha, has identified over 300 variants of Ramayana.

Within India

The seventh century CE "Bhatti's Poem" Bhaṭṭikāvya of Bhaṭṭi is a Sanskrit retelling of the epic that simultaneously illustrates the grammatical examples for Pāṇini's Aṣṭādhyāyī as well as the major figures of speech and the Prakrit language.
There are diverse regional versions of the Ramayana written by various authors in India. Some of them differ significantly from each other. During the 12th century AD, Kamban wrote Ramavatharam, known popularly as Kambaramayanam in Tamil. Valmiki's Ramayana inspired theSri Ramacharit Manas by Tulasidas in 1576, an epic Awadhi (a dialect of Hindi) version with a slant more grounded in a different realm of Hindu literature, that of bhakti. It is an acknowledged masterpiece of India, popularly known as Tulsi-krita Ramayana. Gujaratipoet Premanand wrote a version of Ramayana in the 17th century. Other versions include a Bengali version by Krittivas in the 14th century, in Oriya by Balarama Das in the 16th century, in Marathi by Sridhara in the 18th century, a Telugu version by Ranganatha in the 15th century, a Torave Ramayana in Kannada by the 16th century poet Narahari and in 20th century Rashtrakavi Kuvempu's Sri Ramayana Darshnam, Kotha Ramayana in Assamese by the 14th century poet Madhava Kandali andAdhyathma Ramayanam Kilippattu, a Malayalam version by Thunchaththu Ezhuthachan in the 16th century.
There is a sub-plot to Ramayana, prevalent in some parts of India, relating the adventures of Ahi Ravana and Mahi Ravana, the evil brother of Ravana, which enhances the role of Hanuman in the story. Hanuman rescues Rama and Lakshmana after they are kidnapped by the Ahi-mahi Ravana at the behest of Ravana and held prisoner in a subterranean cave, to be sacrificed to the goddess Kali.
Mappillapattu—a genre of song popular among the Muslims belonging to Kerala and Lakshadweep—has incorporated some episodes from the Ramayana into its songs. These songs, known as Mappila Ramayana, have been handed down from one generation to the next orally. In Mappila Ramayana, the story of the Ramayana has been changed into that of a sultan, and there are no major changes in the names of characters except for that of Rama which is `Laman' in many places. The language and the imagery projected in the Mappilapattu are in accordance with the social fabric of the earlier Muslim community.

In Nepal

Two versions of Ramayana are present in Nepal. One is written by Mahakabhi Siddhidas Mahaju in Nepal Bhasa. The other one is written by Aadikavi Bhanubhakta Acharya. The Nepal Bhasa version by Siddhidas Mahaju marks a great point in the renaissance of Nepal Bhasa whereas the one of Bhanubhakta Acharya is the first epic of Nepali.

Southeast Asian versions

Many other Asian cultures have adapted the Ramayana, resulting in other national epics. Kakawin Ramayana is an old Javanese rendering;Yogesvara Ramayana is attributed to the scribe Yogesvara circa 9th century CE, who was employed in the court of the Sriwijaya. It has 2774stanzas in manipravala style, a mixture of Sanskrit and Archaic prose Javanese language. The most influential version of the Ramayana is theRavanavadham of Bhatti, popularly known as Bhattikavya. The Javanese Ramayana differs markedly from the original Hindu prototype.
Phra Lak Phra Lam is a Lao language version, whose title comes from Lakshmana and Rama. The story of Lakshmana and Rama is told as the previous life of the Buddha. In Hikayat Seri Rama of Malaysia, Dasharatha is the great-grandson of the Prophet Adam. Ravana receives boons from Allah instead of Brahma. In many Malay language versions, Lakshmana is given greater importance than Rama, whose character is considered somewhat weak.

Thailand's popular national epic Ramakien ("Glory of Rama") is derived from the Hindu epic. In Ramakien, Sita is the daughter of Ravana and Mandodari (T'os'akanth (=Dasakanth) and Mont'o). Vibhisana (P'ip'ek), the astrologer brother of Ravana, predicts calamity from the horoscope of Sita. So Ravana has her thrown into the waters, who, later, is picked by Janaka (Janok). While the main story is identical to that of theRamayana, many other aspects were transposed into a Thai context, such as the clothes, weapons, topography, and elements of nature, which are described as being Thai in style. It has an expanded role for Hanuman and he is portrayed as a lascivious character. Ramakien can be seen in an elaborate illustration at the Wat Phra Kaew temple in Bangkok.The Cambodian version of Ramayana, the Reamker, is the most famous story of Khmer Literature since the Funan era. It adapts the Hindu concepts to Buddhist themes and shows the balance of good and evil in the world. The Reamker has several differences from the original Ramayana, including scenes not included in the original and emphasis on Hanuman and Sovanna Maccha, a retelling which influences the Thai and Lao versions. Reamker in Cambodia is not confined to the realm of literature but extends to all Cambodian art forms, such as sculpture, Khmer classical dance, theatre known as Lakhorn Luang (the foundation of the royal ballet), poetry and the mural and bas reliefs seen at the Silver Pagoda and Angkor wat.

Other Southeast Asian adaptations include Ramakavaca of Bali (Indonesia), Maharadya Lawana and Darangen of Mindanao (Philippines), and the Yama Zatdaw of Myanmar. Aspects of the Chinese epic Journey to the West were also inspired by the Ramayana, particularly the character Sun Wukong, who is believed to have been based on Hanuman.


Ashok vatika where Ravana kept Sita

The Ravana Palace  which was burnt by Hanuman

Sugriva Cave

Sanjivani Mountain from where Sanjivani Booti was acquired to save Lakshman which has many exotic herbs even now

Floating Stone from Ramsethu(bridge made by lord Rama and Vanara sena)


Monday, May 10, 2010

Famous Quotes from Tirukkural

• Smile, with patience, hopeful heart, in troublous hour and vanquish grief; nothing hath equal power. (Kural No.: 621)
• The stalks of water-flowers are proportionate to the depth of water; so is men's greatness proportionate to their minds (Knowledge). (Kural No.: 595)
• Defer not virtue to another day; receive her now; and at the dying hour she will be your undying friend. (Kural No.: 36)
• Avoid an act which you may repent later; If done by mistake, better not to repeat it. (Kural No.: 655)
• As one goes to the bad ways of life,even because of poverty, even his mother will look him as a stranger. (Kural No.: 1047)
• Friendship is not just a smile on the face; It is what is felt deep within a smiling heart. (Kural No.: 786)
• True friends guard you from evil, make you walk in right path and share your sorrow in difficult times. (Kural No.: 787)
• Excessive or deficient food or activity causes disorders in mobility, breathing and digestion. (Kural No.: 941)
• Though the world goes round with many activities, it is dependent on agriculture. Hence, though laborious, farming is the foremost activity. (Kural No.: 1031)
• Agriculturists are the linchpin of the mankind since they support all others who cannot till the soil. (Kural No.: 1032)
• The learned teacher makes you enjoy learning; On leaving, makes you to keep thinking of his teaching. (Kural No.: 394)
• Think and then undertake the work; to think after commencement will bring disgrace. (Kural No.: 467)
• Determined efforts result in prosperity; Idleness will bring nothing. (Kural No.: 616)
• Water will flow from a well in the sand in proportion to the depth to which it is dug, and knowledge will flow from a man in proportion to his learning. (Kural No.: 396)
• As water changes (its nature), from the nature of the soil (in which it flows), so will the character of men resemble that of their associates. (Kural No.: 452)
• If wealth be in the possession of a man who has the great excellence (of benevolence), it is like a tree which as a medicine is an infallible cure for disease. (Kural No.: 217)
• Let (one) weigh well the strength of the deed (he purposes to do), his own strength, the strength of his enemy, and the strength of the allies (of both), and then let him act. (Kural No.: 471)
• The axle tree of a bandy, loaded only with peacocks' feathers will break, if it be greatly overloaded. (Kural No.: 475)
• Let the thoughts be always great and progressive. It will not be a loss, even if the success eludes. (Kural No.: 596)
• There is no need of a shaven head, nor of tangled long hair, if a man abstain from those deeds which the wise have condemned. (Kural No.: 280)
• A fool can procure in a single birth a hell into which he may enter and suffer through all the seven births. (Kural No.: 835)
• All human beings agree as regards their birth but differ as regards their characteristics, because of the different qualities of their actions. (Kural No.: 972)

Tirukkural - Proud to Tamil and Tamilan

Thirukkural  திருக்குறள்  is a classic of couplets or Kurals (1330 rhyming Tamil couplets) or aphorisms celebrated by Tamils.It was authored by Thiruvalluvar, and is considered to be the first work to focus on ethics, in Dravidian Literature. Although the exact period of its composition is still disputed, scholars agree that it was produced before the 4th century A.D. The work begins with a salutation to the Almighty. The author was hence certainly a believer in God . His work is however, completely universal in approach. It is hence called ulga podhu marai (the world's common scripture). It does not advocate any specific religion then prevalent in India, namelyHinduism, Jainism and Buddhism Thirukkural expounds various aspects of life and is one of the most important works in Tamil. This is reflected in some of the other names by which the text is known: Tamil marai (Tamil Veda); poyyamozhi (words that never fail); and teyva nul or dheiva nool (divine text). The book is considered to be a posterior to Arthashastra by some historians and to precede Manimekalai and Silapathikaram since both the latter acknowledge the Kural text.Thirukkural is and remains to be the book that has been translated into the most number of languages and hence it is called as "Ulaga Podhu Marai" meaning the Common Knowledge for the world. Copies of Thirukkural are available even at places as far as New York. Copies of Thirukkural published as early as 1930 can be found in New York Public Library.
Thirukkural  is a collection of 1330 Tamil couplets organised into 133 chapters. Each chapter has a specific subject ranging from "ploughing a piece of land" to "ruling a country". According to the LIFCO Tamil-Tamil-English dictionary, the Tamil word Kural means Venpa verse with two lines. Thirukkural comes under one of the four categories of Venpas (Tamil verses) called Kural Venpa. The 1330 couplets are arranged into 3 main sections and 133 chapters. Each chapter contains 10 couplets. A couplet consists of seven cirs, with four cirs on the first line and three on the second. A cir is a single or a combination of more than one Tamil word. For example, Thirukkural is a cir formed by combining the two words Thiru and Kural, i.e. Thiru + Kural = Thirukkural. It is has been translated to various other languages.
There are claims and counter claims as to the authorship of the book and to the exact number of couplets written by Thiruvalluvar. The first instance of the author's name mentioned as Thiruvalluvar is found to be several centuries later in a song of praise called Garland of Thiruvalluvarin Thiruvalluva Malai.


The Thirukkural is divided into three sections. They are (in this order):
  • அறத்துப்பால் - Arattuppaal: On law/virtue 
  • பொருட்பால் - Porutpaal: On wealth/politics 
  • காமத்துப்பால் - Kamatuppaal: On desire/love 
The Latin translation of Thirukkural made by Constanzo Beschi in 1730 did much to make known to European intellectuals the richness and beauty of Oriental Tamil literature. Being a collection of poem, the translation to prose or the Urai (explanation) of Tirukural have been given by eminent personalities like M.K.Karunanidhi, the current Chief minister of Tamilnadu. One of the earliest commentaries on the Thirukkural was by Parimelazhagar, belonging to the 12th century. His commentary (Urai) give us an idea of the amount of information contained in each and every kural. A lot of software are available these days for installing Kurals in desktops. The software based Kural (poem) changes each day and you get the kural and its explanation in both English and Tamil. An English Translation of Tirukural by GU Pope brought the Tirukkural to the western world in 1886. This work is widely revered and accepted in many parts of the world. Pope's translation can be viewed from the website
The following is a list of translations/commentaries of the Tamil literary classic THIRUKURAL - taken out from the Encyclopaedia of Tamil Literature, vol. 1, Inst. of Asian Studies, Thiruvanmayur, Tamilnadu, India.
  • Nalini Mohan, Sanyal, thirukural, Calcutta, 1939
  • Sastri, E.C., thirukural, Calcutta, 1974
  • Nalini Mohan, Sanyal, thirukural, Calcutta, 1939
  • Sastri, E.C., thirukural, Calcutta, 1974
  • Krishnamoorthy, S. Calcutta, 2001
  • Myo Thant, U, thirukkural, Rangoon
  • Chi Eng Hsi, thirukkural, Hongkong, 1967
  • Zvelebil, Kamil V, Thirukural (selections), Prague, 1952–1954
  • Kat, D, Thirukural (selections), Netherlands, 1964
  • Aiyar, V.V.S, Kural_: Maxims of thiruvalluvar, 4th ed, Madras, 1961
  • Balasubramanian, K.M, Thirukural of thiruvalluvar, Madras, 1962
  • Chakravarthi, A, thirukural in English with commentary, Madras, 1953
  • Drew, H.W., The kural of thiruvalluvar with commentary of Parimelazhakar, Madras, 1840
  • Drew, H.W. and Lazarus, J., Thirukural (in verses), Reprint, Madras, 1956
  • Ellis, F.W., thirukural on virtue (in verse) with commentary, 1812, reprint Madras 1955
  • Gajapathy Nayagar, A, The rosary of gems of thirukkural, Madras, 1969
  • Kasturi Srinivasan, Thirukural: an ancient Tamil classic (in couplets), Bombay, 1969
  • Mathavaiyah, A, Kural in English with commentary in Tamil, Madras, 1925
  • Michael, S.M., The sacred aphorisms of thiruvalluvar (in verse), Nagarcoil, 1928
  • Muthuswamy, P, Thirukural in English, Madurai, 1965
  • Parameswaran Aiyar, T.V., 108 gems from the sacred Kural, Kottayam, 1928
  • Parameswaran Pillai, V.K., kural, Madras
  • Pope, G.U, A collection of the English translation of thirukural, Madras, 1959
  • Popely, H.A., The sacred Kural (selections in verses), Calcutta, 1951
  • Raja, P, thirukural (in verses), Kumbakonam, 1950
  • Rajagopalachari, C, kural, the great book of thiruvalluvar, Madras, 1937, 3rd ed, 1973
  • Ramachandra Dikshithar, V.R., thirukural in English with roman translation, Madras, 1949
  • Ranganatha Muthaliar, A: thirukural moolamum uraiyum with English translation, Madras, 1933
  • Thangaswami, T.D, thirukural (selections in verse), Madras, 1954
  • Thirunavukarasu, Mrs, T., Kural a selection of 366 verses (a gem for each day), Poona, 1916
  • Vadivel chettiar, K, kural in English with Tamil text and parimelazhakar commentary,(3parts), Madurai, 1972–1980
  • Vanmikinathan, G, the thirukural - a unique guide to moral, material and spiritual prosperity, trichy, 1969
  • Yogi Suddanantha Bharathi: Thirukural with English couplets, Madrs, 1968
  • Yogi Suddanantha Bharathi, thirukural couplets with clear prose rendering, Madras, 1970
  • Berwick, S.L, Na. Thirukkurala, Fiji, 1964
  • Aalto, Pentit, Kural - the ancient Tamil classic, Finland, 1972
  • Ariel, M, kural de thiruvalluvar (traduits du tamoul), Paris, 1848
  • Barrigue de, Fontaineu, G, le livre de l'amour de thiruvalluva, Paris, 1889
  • Danielou, Alain, thiruvallouvar kural, Pondicherry, 1942
  • Jacolliot, Louis, kural de thiruvalluvar, selections, Paris, 1767
  • Lamairesse, M, thirukural in french, Pondicherry, 1867
  • Albrecht, Fenz and K. Lalithambal: thirukural von thiruvalluvar aus dem Tamil, Madurai, 1977
  • Cammera, A.F, thirukural waith German translation, Leipzig, 1803
  • Graul, Karl, der kural des thiruvalluvar, London, 1854
  • Graul, Karl, der tamu lische gnomes dichtar thiruvalluvar, Leipzig, 1865
  • Rickert, Friederich, thirukural, selections, Berlin, 1847
  • William and Norgate, Der kural des thiruvalluvar, 2nd ed, London, 1866
  • Kalani, Kantilal L., thirukural in Gujarati, Bombay, 1971 (Gujarti - Philosopher - Writer in Gujarati Literature - [1930-1998]. Kantilal has won many prices for his books and has written more than 60 books. One of his Co-profound translation is “VISHNU SAHSTRNAM”.
  • Sankar Raju Naidu, S, thirukural in Hindi, Madras, 1958
  • Seshadri, K, thirukural in Hindi, Lucknow, 1982
  • Govindaraj Jain, Kural in verse, first two parts, New delhi, 1942
  • Jain, B.D, thirukural, thirupananthal, 1961
  • Khenand Rakar, thirukural, parts 1 and 2, Ajmer, 1924
  • Rajan Pillai, thirukural, Lucknow, 1976
  • Venkatakrishnan, M.G, thirukural, Trichy, 1964
  • Gundappa, L, thirukural (3 parts), Madras, 1960
  • Gundappa, L, thirukural dharma bhaga, Bangalore, 1955
  • Srinivas, P.S, thirukural with original couplets and translations in Kannada, Madurai, 1982
  • Srikanthaiah, B.M, Kural (selections in verses), bangalore, 1940
  • Graul, Charles, Kural of thiruvalluvar, Tranquebar, 1866
  • Veeramamunivar, thirukural (Books I and II), London, 1930
  • Dr.G.Soosai Ph.D,J.P.,P.P.N,P.K.T.,Thirukkural Kitab Murni TamilNadu.,Kuala Lumpur,1978 & 1991
  • Ismail, Hussein: thirukural sastera kalasik Tamil yang, Kuala Lumpur, 1967
  • Ramily Bin Thakir thirukural (in verses), Kuala Lumpur, 1964
  • Azhakathu Kurup, thirukural in verses, Trivandrum, 1875
  • Balakrishna Nair, G, Kural waith commentary, Part I, Trivandrum, 1963
  • Chellan Nadar, K, thirukural tharmanaskantam, Parassala, 1962
  • Damodaran Pillai,P, thirukural manikal, Trivandrum, 1951
  • Gopalakurup, Vennikulam, thirukural (first 2 parts in verse), Kottayam, 1960
  • Govinda Pillai, A, thirukural, Trivandrum
  • Thirukkural Malayalam Vivarthanam Published by DC Books Kottayam Written By S. Ramesan Nair
  • Kishrod, Dash Ch, thirukuralu-in oriya language, Sampalbur, 1985
  • Ram Murti Sharma, thirukural dhamma granth of the tamils, Chandigarh, 1983
  • Umadevi, Wandy Dynowskiev, thiruvalluvar kural, Madras, 1958
  • Kamala Gurg, thirukural needhi sastra, Jaipur, 1982
  • Glazov, J.J and Krishnamurthi, A, thirukural, a book on virtu, politics and love, Moscow, 1963
  • Ibragimov, A., Thirukural in couplets with illustrations, Moscow, 1974
  • Srirama Desikan, S.N, thirukural in Sanskrit slokas, Madras, 1961, 1968
  • Ram, S.S, Saurastra thirukural payiram - pitika pragaranam, Madurai, 1980
  • De Silva, Charles, Sirigiya (thirukural in sinhalese), Colombo, 1964
  • Sissigamy Govokgada, M, thirukural, Colombo, 1961
  • Frykholm Ingya, thirukural, Uddavalla, 1971
  • Jagannatha Sastri, Mudiganthi, thiruvalluva sookthalu, West Godavari, 1952
  • Lakshminarayana Sastri, Kural, chittoor, 1906
  • Kohan, Muhamad Yusuf, Kural in Urdu and Arabic, Madras, 1976
  • Surawathi Hasarat, Kural in Urdu, New Delhi, 1966
It is the book that most no of translations made after BIBLE. Be proud of Tamil